The Deal:

♠First card flipped

♥Pointless hand

♣Trump cards

♦Pairs

**The Deal:****
**

It takes slightly
longer on average to reach the first level card when each player is
on a different level. This is because when everyone is on the same
level, a card that is not flipped is not anyone’s level card, so all
eight of them must remain in the deck; whereas when players are on
different levels, an unflipped card may be someone else’s level
card, in which case there are fewer than eight remaining in the deck
for them. When everyone is on the same level it is also possible,
although highly unlikely, for all eight 2’s to be in the bottom
eight. This occurs less than once every billion hands.

The formula takes into account that for some
hands, multiple people will receive no point cards, and considers
the dealer’s hand before the bottom eight are picked up. About 1 in
every 55 deals will result in a pointless hand.

Number of pairs received: There are 54 distinct cards which may form a pair; the probability of receiving

Python code used
for Monte Carlo simulations:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- """ Created on Mon Sep 17 13:06:22 2018 @author: R. Lucas Thomas III """ import collections import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import numpy import random from scipy import stats def deal(deck, players, cardsperplayer): hands = [] for i in xrange(0,players): newhand = deck[i*cardsperplayer:(i*(cardsperplayer)+cardsperplayer)] hands.append(newhand) return hands def finddealer(hands,levels): ordinal = 1 for c in xrange(0,20): for p in xrange(0,5): if hands[p][c][0] == levels[p]: if len(hands[p][c]) != 1: return [p,c,ordinal] else: ordinal += 1 return "No dealer" def haspoints(hand): for c in hand: if c[0] == '5': return True elif c[0] == 'K': return True for c in hand: if len(c) == 3: return True return False def countpairs(hand): return len(hand)-len(set(hand)) def trumpcount(hand, level): trump = 0 rank = level[:1] suit = level[-1:] for c in hand: if c == "J": trump += 1 elif c == "j": trump += 1 elif c[-1:] == suit: trump += 1 elif c[:1] == rank: trump += 1 return trump twodecks = [] suits = ['s','h','c','d'] ranks = ['A','K','Q','J','10','9','8','7','6','5','4','3','2'] #form cards by appending suits to ranks and adding the result to the deck for r in ranks: for s in suits: twodecks.append(r+s) twodecks.append(r+s) twodecks.append('J') twodecks.append('J') twodecks.append('j') twodecks.append('j') testdeals = 100000 handcount = 0 paircountlist = [] for a in xrange(0,testdeals): random.shuffle(twodecks) hands = deal(twodecks, 5, 20) for h in hands: handcount += 1 paircountlist.append(countpairs(h)) print paircountlist.count(4)/float(handcount) trumpcounts = [] for a in xrange(0,testdeals): random.shuffle(twodecks) hands = deal(twodecks, 5, 20) for h in hands: handcount += 1 trumpcounts.append(trumpcount(h,"2s")) results = "" for cnt in xrange(0,16): results += str(cnt) + " " results += str(100*trumpcounts.count(cnt)/float(handcount)) + "% " print results #First Card Flipped Probability firstflipped = [] for a in xrange(0,testdeals): random.shuffle(twodecks) bottomeight = twodecks[-8:] hands = deal(twodecks, 5, 20) levels = ['2','2','2','2','2'] firstflipped.append(finddealer(hands,levels)[2]) ff = numpy.array(firstflipped) plt.hist(ff) plt.show() print "Average card flipped: " + str(numpy.mean(ff)) print "Median card flipped: " + str(numpy.median(ff)) print "Mode card flipped: " + str(stats.mode(ff)[0]) print "Probability of draw flip: " + str(100*collections.Counter(firstflipped)[10]/float(testdeals)) + "%" #Pointless Hand Probability redeal = 0 pointlesscount = 0 handcount = 0 for a in xrange(0,testdeals): random.shuffle(twodecks) bottomeight = twodecks[-8:] hands = deal(twodecks, 5, 20) haspointless = 0 for h in hands: handcount += 1 if haspoints(h) == False: pointlesscount += 1 haspointless = 1 if haspointless == 1: redeal += 1 print "Redealt hands: " + str(redeal) print pointlesscount print handcount print redeal/float(testdeals)